Headaches – Symptoms, causes and treatment

Headaches are pain in the head or tenderness in the head, which can appear gradually or suddenly. Pain can appear on one side of the head, or all over the head. A headache can make your head feel like it’s throbbing, or it’s like being wrapped tightly with a rope.

Headaches can range from mild to severe, and can last from a few hours to days. Generally headaches can be treated with anti-pain medications that are sold freely. However, for headaches that are triggered by serious illnesses, further treatment is needed.

It is important to note that headaches are a common symptom experienced by COVID-19 sufferers. Therefore, if you experience headaches, you should immediately consult a doctor to confirm the condition:

  • Antibody Rapid Test
  • Antigen Swab  (Rapid Test Antigen)
  • PCR

Headache Symptoms

Symptoms of a headache are aches or pains in the head, which can radiate to the face, neck, and shoulders. The pain may also be more dominant in certain parts of the head, such as the forehead, the left or right side of the head, or the back of the head. The sufferer’s vision may also become blurry, and be more sensitive to light and sound.

Immediately consult a doctor if the headache is accompanied by vomiting, stiff neck, visual disturbances, slurred speech, or seizures. It could be a symptom of a dangerous disease.

Causes of Headaches

Headaches are caused by the activation of the pain nerves in the head. This condition can be triggered by several everyday behaviors, such as lack of sleep, late eating, or inappropriate food choices. Headaches can also be triggered by a number of diseases, including toothaches, ear infections, migraines or migraines in children, hypertension, or brain tumors.

Headache Diagnosis

To find out the cause of the headache, the patient is advised to pay attention to his daily behavior that may be the cause of the headache. If the headache makes the sufferer become worried, you should consult a doctor. The doctor will perform a number of tests to determine the cause of the headache.

Headache Treatment and Prevention

Treatment of headaches depends on the cause. If there are no other dangerous symptoms, headaches can be relieved with over-the-counter medications, such as paracetamol. If you feel a headache is worrying, immediately consult a doctor to get an examination and appropriate treatment.

To prevent headaches due to daily behavior, apply healthy lifestyle behaviors, such as getting enough rest and exercising regularly. As for headaches due to an illness, the best prevention is to treat the cause.

Headache Symptomps

Headache symptoms are very diverse, ranging from mild to severe and unbearable. The duration or duration of the headache also varies. Based on the symptoms, headaches can be divided into several types, including:


Symptoms of migraine headaches are throbbing pain, and often occur only on one side of the head. Migraine pain can last from a few hours to three days.

Cluster headache

Cluster headache is a pain in the head that occurs repeatedly in a particular cycle. The pain can last for weeks or months, then the pain will go away for months or years, before reappearing.

Tense headache

Tension headaches are often described as having a tight rope tied around the head. In addition to the head, pain can occur in the neck and behind the eyes, and can last from minutes to weeks. Tension headaches are the most common type of headache.

Headaches can sometimes be accompanied by a number of the following symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Drown
  • Nausea
  • Colds and stuffy noses
  • Red eye
  • Sensitive to sound and light

When to go to the doctor

Almost everyone has had a headache. The causes are various, from everyday habits to serious illness. When not accompanied by other dangerous symptoms, headaches can be treated on their own by taking over -the -counter headache medications, such as paracetamol.

However, you need to see a doctor immediately if the headache occurs after a collision or accident, appears suddenly and feels severe, or is accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • Vomiting
  • Stiff neck
  • The body feels numb
  • Talk messed up
  • Blurred vision
  • It’s hard to talk
  • It’s hard to walk
  • Seizures

Causes of Headache

Headaches are caused by active pain nerves in the head, either due to disturbances in the head or other body parts. This activation of pain nerves can be triggered by chemical activity in the brain, disorders of the muscles in the head and neck, or disorders of blood vessels in the head.

The cause of the disorder can be a behavior or lifestyle, or a condition or disease. Some behaviors that can trigger headaches include:

  • Consumption of alcoholic beverages.
  • Excessive consumption of caffeinated drinks.
  • The habit of tying hair too tight or wearing a narrow helmet.
  • Changes in sleep patterns or lack of sleep.
  • Late meal.
  • Smoking habits .
  • Excessive exercise, especially at high altitudes or when the weather is hot.

While the diseases that can cause headaches, include:

Diseases in the brain

Examples are stroke, brain tumor, encephalitis, meningitis, and deformity or inflammation of the blood vessels of the brain.

Diseases in the facial area

The disease in question can be sinusitis, glaucoma, ear infections, trigeminal neuralgia, toothache, or the flu.

Diseases of the heart

An example of heart disease is coronary heart disease.

Mental disorders

These mental disorders can include panic disorder, panic attacks, anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, and depression.

In addition to the things above, there are also a number of other conditions that can cause or trigger headaches, such as:

  • Stress
  • Hypertension
  • Overweight.
  • Dehydration
  • Chemical poisoning
  • Head injury
  • Consumption of birth control pills
  • Menstruation.

Headache Diagnosis and Treatment

To find out the cause of headaches, first pay attention to everyday behaviors that may be causing headaches, such as lack of sleep or stress. If the cause is not clear, persists, and feels very disturbing, it is best if this complaint is examined by a doctor.

The doctor will ask the headache sufferer to describe the characteristics and location of the pain, its severity, accompanying symptoms, and how long the pain has lasted.

If there is a suspicion that the headache is caused by an illness, the doctor may perform the following investigations:

blood test

This procedure aims to check whether there is an infection that can cause headaches.

Eyeball pressure examination

This examination is done to detect possible headaches caused by glaucoma.

Imaging test

A CT scan and MRI may be done to check if the headache is caused by a tumor or brain damage.

Lumbar puncture

This procedure is performed to take samples of cerebrospinal fluid and spinal cord, to be examined and detect any infection in the brain.


The neurologist may perform an electroencephalography (electroencephalography) examination of the brain if the headache is accompanied by seizures.

Headache Treatment

Treatment of headaches depends on the cause. If there are no other dangerous symptoms, sufferers can rest and take over-the- counter headache medications without a doctor’s prescription, such as paracetamol.

However, if there are worrying symptoms or recurring headaches, consult a doctor immediately. The doctor will find out the cause of your headache and provide appropriate treatment.

There are various methods of treatment to deal with headaches, from taking medication to surgery. Medicines that are commonly given by doctors to relieve headaches are:

  • Ibuprofen
  • Paracetamol
  • Sumatriptan
  • Ergotamine

Headache Prevention

Headaches can be prevented with the following simple steps:

  • Get enough and regular sleep, 7-8 hours per day.
  • Eat regularly with balanced nutrition.
  • Reduce consumption of caffeinated drinks.
  • Identify and avoid headache triggers.
  • Limit the consumption of over-the-counter headache medications.
  • Exercise regularly, but don’t overdo it to avoid post-workout headaches.
  • Practice relaxation techniques, such as yoga or meditation .
  • Manage stress well.

To reduce the frequency and severity of tension headaches , cluster headaches , and migraines, your doctor may prescribe the following medications:

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Beta blocking drugs
  • Calcium antagonist
  • Anticonvulsants
  • Antidepressant drugs
  • Corticosteroids
  • Nerve paralytic drugs
  • Muscle relaxant
  • Botox injections

Meanwhile, to prevent headaches that are triggered by an illness, you can take precautions against the emergence of the disease.

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